Fault code P0652 – sensor reference voltage “B” circuit low

Fault code P0652 is called “Sensor Reference Voltage “B” Circuit Low” but in different programs it may be called differently. This fault designation applies to all vehicles equipped with OBD-II.

Technical description and explained code P0652

Stored code P0652 means that the Powertrain Control Module (PCM) has detected that the sensor reference voltage in the “B” circuit is too low. In this case, it is not a specific sensor, but any of the sensors in the “B” circuit.

Fault code P0652 – sensor reference voltage

Usually this circuit energizes the crankshaft position sensor, brake pedal position sensor, and fuel economy switch. But sometimes others may be present, depending on make and model.

All of these sensors have a 5V reference voltage on the same circuit as the PCM, and a signal is received. If this signal received by the PCM is too low, the circuit is considered faulty and code P0652 will be stored.

So if the “B” voltage reference circuit is too low, all sensors that share this circuit may be affected. But in many cases this error will be accompanied by other codes. Which will help narrow down the general area where too low voltage is present.

Whether other codes are present or not, this error means that a low signal has been detected in the “B” voltage reference circuit.

Symptoms of vehicle malfunctions

The main signal that an error P0652 has occurred is the Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL) is also known as the CheckEngine Light.

It can also be warning signs such as:

  1. The “Check engine” control lamp on the control panel will light up (the code will be stored as a fault).
  2. Additionally, there may be codes indicating a problem with a particular sensor.
  3. Inability to shift transmission between sport and economy modes.
  4. Shifts may be abrupt, or the transmission may not shift at all.
  5. Failure of the transmission to shift between four-wheel drive and front-wheel drive modes.
  6. The transfer case does not shift between high and low range.
  7. The speedometer may be unstable or not working at all.

The severity of the stored fault code P0652 depends on which of the circuit sensors the breakage occurred in. Therefore, the degree of criticality will be different in each case.

Factors that can cause this error code

The error code P0652 can mean that one or more of the following problems have occurred:

  • The crankshaft position sensor is defective.
  • The fuel economy switch is defective.
  • Problem with the brake pedal position sensor.
  • Problem with the wiring harness or connector in the form of a melted or broken connector.
  • Blown fuse or fusible link.
  • Faulty system power relay.
  • Sometimes faulty PCM module is the cause.

How to fix or reset OBD-2 code P0652

Some suggested steps for troubleshooting and fix the error code P0652:

  1. First, connect an OBD-II scanner to the vehicle’s onboard computer and read all stored data and error codes.
  2. Then clear the error codes from the PCM memory and test-drive the vehicle to find out if error P0652 appears again.
  3. If the error code appears again, check the wires and connectors.
  4. Test the sensors in the “B” reference circuit, and replace if necessary.
  5. Check the control module (PCM), replace or reprogram if necessary.

Diagnose and repair of problems

Connect the scan tool to the vehicle’s diagnostic port and retrieve all stored codes. Then clear them and test-drive the vehicle. If code P0652 does not appear, then the error was temporary. If it appears, continue testing.

Perform a visual inspection of the wiring and connectors associated with the “B” reference circuit sensors. Replace damaged wiring or connectors if damage is detected. After that, reset the errors again, test drive and read them again.

Check the sensors

If code P0652 reappears, refer to the manual to determine which sensors are serviced by the “B” voltage reference circuit. Since manufacturers do not always follow part, circuit, and sensor labeling conventions.

Check the resistance, reference voltage, continuity, and grounding continuity for all relevant sensor wiring. Compare all data obtained with the values given in the manual.

Test the operation of each sensor using an oscilloscope, a library of waveforms will be required. If such equipment and reference data are not available, continuing with the diagnostic procedure is not recommended.

Improper testing procedures can cause serious damage to the electrical system and to one or more control modules.

On which vehicles does this problem occur most frequently

Fault code P0652 can occur on different vehicles but there are statistics on which brands this occurs most often. Here is a list of some of them:

  • Audi
  • Chevrolet
  • Chrysler
  • Dodge (RAM)
  • Ford (Fiesta, Focus, Fusion, Mondeo)
  • Hyundai (Santa Fe)
  • Kia (Sorento)
  • Mercedes-Benz (Sprinter, Vito)
  • Mitsubishi (L200)
  • Nissan (Navara, Pathfinder)
  • Skoda
  • Smart (Fortwo)
  • Volkswagen (Golf, Touran, Transporter)
  • GAZelle (Cummins, Next)

Fault code P0652 can sometimes be found with other errors. The most common are the following: P0193, P0237, P0251, P0341, P0698, P2266, P2269, P2509.


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